Dog  Welfare in a Research Environment

Purpose-bred dog have the benefit of being raised with scripted experiences and it is this range of physical and social stimuli that builds confidence for ways of coping. Training puppies between birth and weaning can have effects on many characteristics that include growth rate and weight gain, development, exploratory behavior, emotionality, physiology, response to food and water deprivation and the risk of contracting certain pathogens or diseases (Committee on Pain and Distress in laboratory Animals, 1992). It is crucial for puppies to be socialized with dogs and humans and to become acclimated to diverse environments from 3 to 12 weeks of age (Scott and Fuller 1965). Socialization and acclimation needs to be an ongoing process because dogs have been known to exhibit behavioral decline when getting older (Boxall et al., 2004).

Dog  Welfare in a Research Environment

Little puppies possess a definite development need for sustained, close social interaction with their conspecifics (Scott and Fuller, 1965) This should be easily met at a breeding facility as in the absence of health issues with the puppy, mother, or littermates. If a puppy has separation from his mother or other littermates it is recommended that procedures are put in place to provide human socialization and limit as much as possible the time it is separated. It is important for puppies to experience separation at an early age most likely in a secure area with no physical restraint as well. Dogs can be extremely hyper-sensitive when they are confronted with separation from littermates(Elliot and Scott, 1961), so incremental separations can be less stressful.

A crucial part of training for puppies is to help them develop confidence in the leadership of people as part of their family structure. Like puppies who learn to be controlled by their mothers, animal care staff must also help them accept human control without threatening them. It’s helpful to evaluate how well puppies are able to handle human interaction and control (Meunier 2006; Wolfle, 1990).

For dogs older than 10 years that were purchased through random-source dealers, long-term background information is unknown. Evaluations of temperament are the major determination concerning the dog’s ability for use in a laboratory. Unfortunately, tests for temperament aren’t uniform or reliable, yet general characteristics can be evaluated (Beaver 2009). The calm, quiet and flexible dogs are preferred.View the chapter Buy the book

Cloning of Canines

Byeong Chun Lee, in Principles of Cloning (Second Edition), 2014

History of Dog Cloning

Dog cloning began when large-breed dogs were used as clone models. “Snuppy,” the first dog to be cloned was born in the year 2005 using a donor cell from a male Afghan hound. The results, entitled “Dogs cloned from adult somatic cells,” were published in the journal Nature (Lee and co.. 2005). The first dog to be cloned was created by using an in live matured oocyte. It was enucleated prior to fusion with a mature skin cell from the dog that was the donor. The following year three female Cloned Afghan dogs were created (Jang et al. 2007) We also monitored their growth and evaluated their reproductive capacity through artificial breeding using “Snuppy.” From these research, we discovered that both male and female dogs can be cloned with SCNT as well as that they have normal reproductive capabilities (Park et al. (2010)). The year 2006 saw the first toy cloned by a poodle was produced from a donor who was 14 years old (Jang et al. 2008). A donor fibroblast cell was injected into an atrophying oocyte of the large breed dog. After fusing both the somatic cell that belongs to the smaller breed dog and the oocytes of the large breed dog then the reconstructed SCNT embryos were transplanted into an the oviduct of a large breed dog. In this way we have demonstrated that dogs of large breed could be used as oocyte donors and as surrogate mothers to clone a small breed dog (Jang et al. 2008). The same year two female cloned eagles were produced from fetal and fibroblasts by through a large breed donor (Hong et al., 2009a). Based on these study, researchers found that fibroblasts from dogs taken from the fetal period up to old age could be reprogrammed by SCNT. The years 2006 and 2007 cloned female (Kim et al., 2007) and male wolves (Oh et al., 2008) were successfully created using SCNT interspecies; this finding suggests that the dog cloning technique is a possibility for the protection of canine species in the most extreme circumstances, such as sudden death. Seven cloned drug-sniffing dogs were produced in 2007 from the same dog that had this ability (Oh et al. 2009). A cancer-sniffing dog was created by SCNT in 2009 (Park et al. 2009a) as well as one was used as a quarantine dog to sniff out the presence of an agricultural product in 2012. (Oh et al. (2013)). Cloned drug sniffing dogs, cancer-sniffing dogs that were cloned, as well as cloned quarantine dogs have now been validated, having performed these duties out in field. These results show that canine SCNT techniques have possibilities for creating dogs with exceptional abilities. Finally, a dog cloned was created that constantly displayed the gene for red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene (Hong et al. 2009b), and another that was able to express the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene (Kim et al. (2011)). It was proved by germline transmission by natural breeding methods that these dogs that were cloned were transgenic.

The dogs have been cloned for over 8 years; a large amount of history has been made, and there’s no doubt, canines’ SCNT methods will continue to have applications in many areas in the future.View the chapterPurchase book

Canine Genomics and Genetics

Elaine A. Ostrander, Falina Williams, in Reference Module in Life Sciences, 2019

Breeds and Population Structure

The largest body to register dog breeds worldwide is known as the Federation Cynologique Internationale, which acknowledged 339 breeds at the time of 2013. The 339 breeds are classified into 10 groups according to their appearance, behavior or appearance. There are other niche breeds that exist or are “in process” and technically but not formal, meet the definition of being a breed. There are estimates of more than 500 breeds of domestic dogs around the world.

The American Kennel Club (AKC) currently recognizes 189 breeds with numerous, but not all, selected on the basis of appearance. To be registered as a breed, the breeding population must not just conform to established standards regarding body conformation as well as behaviour, however, those modifications have to “breed true.” That is, crossing between breed members should produces puppies that meet the same standards of the parents. For a single dog to be registered with the breed, the dog has to have parents who were registered as members of the same breed. Recent studies of molecular biology using various SNPs provide a great insight into how different breeds of dogs have a relationship with each other in a way that suggests the likelihood that a variety of breeds developed (Fig. 1).

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