5 Things To Know About Protein Production


Protein is an essential macronutrient needed for various bodily functions. Protein production is the most common use of industrial fermentation, which occurs in a bioreactor (or fermentor). In addition to enzymes, many other microbial metabolite products are made during fermentation. This article discusses five things you should know about protein production.

What is Protein Production?

Proteins are complex molecules made up of amino acids. They have many functions, including making enzymes, hormones, and other proteins. Proteins can also serve as structural components of cells (e.g., collagen) and antibodies, essential to the immune response.

Protein production service is a biotechnological process that produces specific proteins for medical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and other industries. It involves fermentation using bioreactors and downstream processing to generate purified proteins for life sciences and medicinal use.

Here are Things to Know About Protein Production

1. Proteins are Long Chains of Amino Acids


Proteins are long chains of amino acids. Amino acids are large organic compounds composed of amine (−NH2) and carboxyl (−COOH) functional groups, with a side chain (R group) specific to an individual amino acid.

The amino acid sequence in a protein is defined by the gene sequence encoded in the genetic code. Generally, the genetic code is usually 20 standard amino acids. However, the genetic code includes selenocysteine or pyrrolysine in some organisms, particularly in archaea.

Shortly after or during synthesis, the residues in a protein are often chemically modified by post-translational modification, altering the physical and chemical properties, folding, stability and function. Sometimes proteins have non-peptide groups attached called cofactors or prosthetic groups. Proteins also work together to achieve a particular function, and they often collaborate to form stable protein complexes.

2. Protein Production is a Two-Step Process

Protein production is a two-step process. First, the amino acids sequence is determined as specified by the genetic code.

Second, this sequence must be used to make the appropriate protein. This second step can occur in one of two ways: transcription and translation or by direct protein folding. The details of these steps vary for different types of organisms but can be summarized as follows:

In eukaryotes, DNA is in a cellular structure called chromosomes. In contrast, in prokaryotes, it is in a circular chromosome in the cytoplasm. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells have non-coding DNA. The non-coding DNA has many roles, including regulating protein expression and determining when and where proteins are made.


3. The Nucleus of a Cell is Where Protein Production Begins


In the nucleus is DNA, which contains all of the genetic information for the cell. First, the DNA needs to be transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA). mRNA is then translated into amino acid chains, the building blocks of proteins. The resulting amino acid chains, or polypeptides, are then transported into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi complex, where they undergo further processing.

The ER and Golgi complex are like departments in a factory. They are involved in folding, modifying, and packaging the polypeptides before reaching their final destination in the cell.

The final destination for proteins can vary. Protein products may be secreted outside the cell (such as insulin) or remain inside cells (such as hemoglobin). Once inside cells, proteins are incorporated into membranes, stored in granules, or used as enzymes to catalyze chemical reactions.


4. There are Two Main Types of Protein Production


Protein production involves the complex processing of protein synthesis. There are two main types of protein production:

  • Recombinant DNA technology (in vitro)
  • Transgenic organisms (in vivo)

Proteins produced through recombinant DNA technology serve as drugs, diagnostics, and tools for scientific research. These proteins are made in a large quantity from living tissues, such as bacteria and yeast. Recombinant proteins include human growth hormone, insulin, and low-molecular-weight heparin.

Transgenic organisms produce valuable proteins for medicine, food processing, and genetic counseling. For example, transgenic chickens that produce human serum albumin and transgenic goats that produce antithrombin III are available.

5. Industrial Protein Production is Important in the Development of New Medicines


Biologically active proteins are essential in developing new medicines because their structure/function relationship allows them to bind receptors and initiate tissue-specific changes that alter physiological processes. With recombinant DNA technology, proteins can be produced in large quantities and purified for use as drugs or diagnostics.

For instance, insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells in the pancreas to treat type I diabetes. Historically, insulin came from pigs and cows, and it was not until 1978 that genetically engineered human insulin became available.

This form of human insulin is more effective than animal-derived insulin because it does not elicit an immune response in patients. Recombinant protein production is also helpful in vaccine production, such as the hepatitis B vaccine (Engerix), approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1986. This recombinant protein vaccine comes from transfected yeast cells. It helps prevent chronic liver disease caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV).


Whether you’re looking to build healthier habits, lose weight, or improve your physical health, it’s all down to proteins. Proteins are the most abundant molecule in your body, and they play a role in nearly every process. These macronutrients are widely used in biotechnology and life sciences to target specific sublocations.

kids bedroom furniture Next post Organize Your Kid’s Room with Perfect Storage Ideas

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *