Types of Bone Fractures

Types of Bone Fractures

A fracture means a break in the continuity of a bone, or simply, a broken bone. The bones in our body are strong and usually withstand strong forces. But sometimes, bones may break due to high-velocity trauma or intense forces.

An orthopedic surgeon treats a bone fracture. If you need consultation regarding bone fracture, you can consult an Orthopedic doctor.

In this article, we will discuss different types of bone fractures.

There are many different types of fractures, based on how the bone broke. Some common types of fractures are:

  • Open Fracture (Compound Fracture): When the overlying skin breaks along with the fractured bone, it is called an open fracture. The bone may be visible through the wound. Such a fracture needs urgent medical care.
  • Closed Fracture (Simple Fracture): When the bone fractures, but the overlying skin is intact, it is called a closed fracture.
  • Displaced Fracture: When the two segments of bone get misaligned after a fracture, it is called a displaced fracture. Such a fracture needs realignment by a surgeon before it can be immobilized.
  • Non-displaced fracture: This fracture is when the bone is broken, but the two segments remain aligned.
  • Wedge Fracture (Compression Fracture): These fractures occur commonly in the vertebrae due to over-extension of the spine. When looked at on an X-ray, the fracture resembles a wedge, hence the name.
  • Avulsion Fracture: This fracture occurs when a part of the broken bone is pulled away from the corresponding segment. Our bones are connected to other bones and muscles by fibrous bands called ligaments and tendons, respectively.

When a bone breaks, the tendon or ligament attached to the bone pulls the broken segment towards itself.

  • Impacted Fracture (Buckled Fracture): When two ends of the broken bone are impacted into each other, it is known as a buckled fracture.

These are common in fractures of the arm in children. Due to the overriding of the bone segments, the length of the limb may get shortened. Proper realignment is vital to put the parts of the bone back in place before it starts to heal. Otherwise, permanent limb deformity may occur.

  • Greenstick Fracture: A greenstick fracture is an incomplete fracture through the bone. The bone is cracked and bent but not separated into pieces. This type of fracture is seen commonly in children.
  • Comminuted Fracture: In this type of fracture, the bone breaks in more than two places and separates into several pieces. Some segments of the bone can get displaced and injure the surrounding structures. This type of bone fracture usually occurs with high-velocity trauma like car accidents.
  • Pathological Fracture: It is seen in diseases that weaken the bone. The bone loses its normal strength and can break on minor trauma like falling on the floor. Some health conditions in which pathological fractures can occur are:
  • Osteoporosis
  • Osteomalacia
  • Osteogenesis Imperfecta
  • Paget’s disease of bone
  • Benign and malignant bone tumors


Bone Fractures need urgent medical treatment by an orthopedic surgeon. You can consult the Best Orthopedic Surgeon in Multan.

Untreated fractures may result in complications like shock, embolism, or infections. The treatment of fractures varies in different cases. Some fractures can be treated by immobilizing the affected part with a sling, while some require surgery to realign the bones to their original position.

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